Volume 11, Issue 1, Winter 2011, Page 1-123

The Prevalence of Some Intestinal Parasites in Al-Ubaidy Region/Baghdad Provence

Adeba Yousif

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 16-19

This study had investigated the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in Al-ubaidy region722 stool sample had been collected from people of different age groups and with different educational levels. The pathogenic parasites detected by laboratory examination in this study were Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica with prevalence rate 3.6%,1.7%respectively.The higher rates were among primary school children3.4%, 0.7% in comparison with higher education level students 2.9%,0.7% respectively, Entrobius vermicularis worms were detected with prevalence rate of 7.9%, the higher rates were among children between 6-11 years than other age groups.

Trace Metals Content in the Ecosystem of Al-Garaf River in Al-Nassiriya City, South of Iraq

Basim Y. Al-khafaji

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 103-115

The distribution and concentration of five trace metals Cd, Cu, Ni , Pb , and Zn have been determined in dissolved and particulate phases of water , exchangeable and residual phases of sediment and different organs like (gill,liver,ovaries and muscle) of female fish Silurus triostegus, as were collected from Al-Garaf river north center of Al-Nassiriya city .The study was from May up to Septemper ,2008. Sediment texture and total organic carbon (TOC) were measuered in the sediment of the study area as a percentage .The results showed that the concentration of the studied metals in particulate phase were much higher than its concentrations in dissolved phase of water , while their mean concentration in dissolved (µg/l)and particulate (µg/gm) dry weight in the study area were : (0.2,8.9) Cd, (1.20,57.3) Cu, (0.27 , 25.83) Ni , (0.36,37.83) Pb and (3.0 ,63.9) Zn respectively. The total organic carbon in the sediment revealed higher content in all study stations specially at St2 ,while sediment texture was silt clay in all study stations . For sediment , trace metals was recorded higher concentrations in the residual phase than its concentration in exchangeable phase with exception for Cd and Pb at all stations during the study period, whereas the mean concentration of studied metals in the exchangeable and residual phase in the study area were, (1.14,0.47) Cd, (11.1,15.1) Cu, (8.75,20.3) Ni, (13.36,8.56) Pb and (15.03,24.34) Zn µg/gm dry weight respectively.The significant correlation P<0.05 were observed between TOC and all studied metals in the sediment ; also a significant correlation observed between metals concentration in sediment and their concentration in a particulate phase of water .The trace metals showed diffirent concentrations in different studied organs of the fish and followed the trend Gill> Liver >ovaries > muscle ,while the mean concentration µg/gm dry weight in the muscle were , Cd (ND) , Cu (0.03), Ni(0.51±0.01), Pb(ND) and Zn(7.7±0.8) . The present study showed that the sediment and water specially at St2 and St3 were affected by anthropgenic sources for trace metals, such as the untreated domestic wastes and surrounding human activites, muscle of the studied fish were concentreated lower amount for trace metals, so it can be safely consumed, while all

Detection of Trichomoniasis in Vaginal and Urine Specimens from Women in Karbala city

Dhamia; a Maki Hamza Al-Haidari

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 11-16

Vaginal swabs and urine samples were obtained from 115 females attending the private clinics in Karbala and examined by the wet mount preparation and culture method while the urine samples examined by urinalysis method .Trichomonas vaginalis was identified in 11 females (9.5%) with vaginal discharge. Pregnant women showed the highest rate 6 (15%) .The next highest rate 3 ( 14.2%) in the post menopausal women and identified the motile stage of this parasite in the urine of just 2(1.7%) of females especially in the pregnant women.

S*- (o)-converges in Orlicz lattice

Falah Hasan Sarhan

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 30-33

In this paper, we shall review some of the definitions and propositions which are needed in our work. Also we have proved that ||xn-x||F (o)-convergence to zero if and only if F(xn-x) (o)-convergence to zero.

Overcoming the antimicrobial fasting property of the dormant Brucella by combining bacterial reactivators and antiBrucella drugs in mice

Hussein AbdulKadhim A

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 117-123

Brucella is one of the microorganism that is characterized by its ability to persist
although an effective immunity and a course of antimicrobial are provided. Brucella
dormancy is the major contributor for this persistence.For this reason brucellosis gains
its clinical significance as recurrent disease.In a trial of overcoming this dormancy
state immunity of the tested mice(induced with intraarticular brucellosis) has been
modulated with short course of dexamethasone to enhance Brucella suscebtabilty to
antimicrobials. Sensitive thermometer was used to evaluate the average topical left
knee joint hotness in response to treatment. Evaluation of knee joint aspirate every 3
days for the average count of PMN and MN inflammatory cells in addition to the
number of the stained Brucella bacilli per high power field light microscope in addition
to autopsy histopathological sectioning of the leftkneejointdirectlyafterthe10
days.Mice joints temperature have been measured and showed an obvious and
statistically significant increased in temperature in untreated mice(40.1 degrees at the
end of monitoring course) whereas a less sharp raise noticed in dexamethasone plus
doxycycline plus SMS-TM ( slfamethoxazole – trimethoprim) treated group which was
lesser even than antimicrobial only treated group. There was a statistically significant
decline in the number of knee joint inflammatory cells in group C as compared with
the standard treated and untreated groups at P<0.05. A Brucella count in untreated
mice was the largest 3400 at the end of the course in comparison with negligible count
noticed in group C at the end of treatment.

The study of Biological Activity of Some Schiff Bases against some pathogenic bacteria


journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 85-94

Schiff bases are an organic compound prepared from condensation reaction between aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes and aliphatic or aromatic amines.,This research included study of the biological activity for some compounds (Schiff bases) which newly prepared from condensation of aldehydic derivative of pentose with some of aniline derivative:(paratoludine ,para hydroxyl aniline ,parachloro aniline) .,The study explained that complexes have a clear biological effect on the species of bacteria were studied which are(proteus mirabilis, staphylococcus spp ,streptococcus spp &E.Coli spp)., According to the different concentration within inhibition range about(0-51)Mm.

1H- indole-2-carboxylate

Naji M. Ali

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 79-85

A number of indole derivatives were prepared by reaction of a series of available aromatic aldehyde with ethyl azido acetate followed by thermolysis of the resulted vinyl nitrene intermediates. These derivatives can be used as precursor for the antitumour CC-1065.

The Determination of the Maximum Range and Energy of α- Particles in Isotope (239Pu ) by Employing Scintillation Counter

Qusiy Hibeeb Hityhit Al-Galiby

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 52-59

The aim of the present practical research is determing the maximum range and energy of α – particles in radioactive source isotope 239Pu using scintillation counter by changing the intensity of radiation for various time rates, as well as the adopting of the natural logarithm of the pulse radiation (Ln I) per unit time from the change for the alpha particles Rα have been determing the maximum range. Hence, it is found from the results obtained that the maximum energy at the range 3.5 cm is (5 Mev) when the voltage works is 700 V.

Evaluation of Some cleaning Products in Local Market in Reducing microbial Contamination of Hands

Rajaa A.AL-Anbaeki

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

A study was carried on samplS including 20 students from Department of Biology ,College of Science for Women , University of Babylon for the year 2008-2009 to detec microorganisms on hands of students during the academic performance of their duties and efficiency of hand washing with cleaning products plain soap , antiseptic soap ,Dettol and alcohol available in the local markets on the numbers of colony forming units (CFUs) of identified microorganisms and frequency it on 20 students . Results showed that several microorganisms were isolated from the hands before hand washing , Streptococcus pyogenes most frequency among the individuals of sample following Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus sp. and S. epidermis respectively , also observed some but not all individuals were carried Bacillus sp. and yeasts on skin of their hands , therefore the frequency of it are little. After handwashing with alcohol treatment caused reduction of percentage of frequency for all identified microorganisms more than other treatments. The results of hand washing by used plain soap, antiseptic soap , dettol and alcohol on numbers of colony forming units (CFUs) of identified microorganisms showed that all treatments of hand washing were reduced all isolates of microorganisms with different percentage of reduction depending on type of treatments and isolate , also observed S . pyogenes less effected compared with other isolates when treated with cleaning products .

Modification of montmorillonite,Using different phosphonium salts, study their effect upon the structure

Saadon A.Aowda

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 60-69

In this study, sodium montmorillonite was modified using three organic phosphonium salts triphenylphosphonium chloride (Tpp-Cl), octyl
triphenylphosphonium bromide (C8tpp-Br) and hexadecyl
triphenylphosphonium bromide (C16 tpp-Br). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to identify the functional groups of organo-montmorillonites (OMMTs). Basal spacing and thermal stability of OMMTs were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. Elemental analysis was used to identify the composition of modified sodium montmorillonites. Optimum conditions of cationic exchange capacity (CEC) were studied in order to determine the optimum amount of phosphonium salt used for modification of clay. The X-ray diffraction results show that the basal spacing of the treated clay with Tpp-Cl, C8tpp-Br and C16 tpp-Br increased to 1.51, 1.91 and 2.42 nm, respectively. FTIR spectra illustrate that phosphonium salts were intercalated into the clay layers. Elemental analysis results indicate that phosphonium cations were successfully exchanged with Na present in the clay layers. Thermal analysis provides an indication of the stability of the OMMTs.

Study of the atomic form factor in ion – atom collisions process

Salman Hamza Hussein

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 95-102

The function has been studied theoretically in the collisions process of 95 MeV/u Ar18+with Li atom in ground state 2s and exited states 3s and 4s for emission energies of electrons(10,30,100 eV.). The results show that the function has many peaks in different ranges of momentum transfer but strong peak at and reaches to minimum at (momentum of emitted electron) for ground state 2s but reaches to minimum at for exited states 3s and 4s. The function decreased with increasing of energy of electrons emission. Computer program in Fortran language has been built to solve the numerical formulas in this work.

The Neighboring Benzil group and Synthesis of Hydantions


journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 70-78

Synthesis of some imidazolidine derivatives in the presente of the 4-chloro-4--dimethyl amino benzyl,2-nitro-4—dimethylaminobenzyl ,4-chloro-4-hydroxybenzyl ,4-chloro-3--bromobenzyl ,4-chloro-4-aminobenzile with urea.
The compound which have been prepared are 5- ( 4- dimethylaminophenyl ) -5--( 4-chlorophenyl) –imidazolidine-2,4-dione , 5-( 4-dimethyl aminophenyl )-5--( 2-nitrophenyl )-imidazolidine-2,4-dione , 5-( 4-chlorophenyl )-5-( 4hydroxyphenyl )–imidazolidine-2,4-dione , 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-5--(3-bromophenyl)-imidazolidine-2,4-dione , 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-5--(4-amino phenyl)-imidazolidine-2,4-dione . diagnosis of compound by IR spectrum and C.H.N analysis.

Evaluation of C- Reactive Protein (CRP) Titer in Patients with Acute Hepatitis A Virus Infection

Tamara Amer Taha

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 20-29

This study was conducted from 5th September 2008 to 15th April 2009 . in Public Health Laboratory and learning Baquba Hospital to determine the C- reactive titer among patients with acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in relation to healthy subjects . the study also aimed to correlate these titers with liver function test parameters and also to findout the validity of C- reactive protein titers as diagnostic or monitoring markers in patients with acute HAV infection .
The study was included 108 patients with HAV infection and 115 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled as a control group . Patient group involved 47(43.5%) female and 61(56.5%) male in age rang from (3month – 17) years . Control group include 66(57.4%) female and 49(42.6%) male in age range from (18 month – 20) years . Blood samples were collected . Sera were separated and stored in aliquts at (-20ْC) till use .The diagnosis of acute HAV infection was based on detection of IgM HAV Antibodies by ELISA technique , whereas ,liver function tests were assessed by enzymatic biochemical procedures . Titration of C- Reactive protein was determine by semi – quantitative tube agglutination test . All data were statistically analyzed using computerized SPSS version 10 .The results showed that were a significant variation (P< 0.001) between patients with HAV infection (1:64) and control( 1 : 2) when use (Mann – Whitney ) test.Depending on 95% , the baseline titer of CRP in healthy controls was 1:4 (8 mg / L) . While inpatient with acute HAV infection was 1:512 (1024 mg / L ) . The validity of CRP test at titer 1 :16 cut – off value (32 mg / L) was found highly sensitive (100%) and highly specific (97.3%) with test accuracy (98.6%) for differentiating between healthy controls and patients with HAV infection when the clinical suspicion is 50% .The results revealed that the CRP titers were significantly correlated with liver function test parameters . Suggesting that CRP titration could be used as a surrogate marker in prediction of acute HAV infection beside the clinical picture .

Some Results on FeeblEy Multiplication Modules

Uhood S. Al-Hassani

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 34-39

Let R be a commutative ring with non- zero identity. An R- module M is called weekly multiplication if every prime submodule of M is multiplication submodule of M. In this paper, we define the notion of feebly multiplication module and then we obtain some related result. In particular we prove that the tensor product of two feebly multiplication modules is a feebly multiplication module.

Farctional Calculus Operators of a new Class of Univalent Functions With Negative Coefficients of Complex Order

Waggas Galib Atshan

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 40-51

In the present paper, we introduce a new class of univalent function with negative coefficients of complex order, by using fractional differ – integral operators studied recently by authors. Coefficient characterization, growth and distortion, radii of starlikeness and convexity , closure theorems of this class of functions are studied. We also study some integral operators on our class G .

Effects The alcoholic extract of ginger, and (Subtilin & Bliates) In control On some the fungi that infect the orange fruits laboratory

Baidaa Abood Hassan

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 30-40

The study was conducted in the laboratories of Biology Department college of Sciences which deal with Effects the alcoholic extract of Zingiber and Bliates and Subtilin in control certain fungi that infect -orange fruits in laboratory. The results of this study proved the efficiency of alcoholic extract of ginger plant to provide protection for the fruits of orange from infection with Penicillium, Fusarium, A. flavus were more than biocidal Subtilin and the pesticide chemical Bliates where the percentage of inhibition when it is used the concentration 60% for Penicillium, Fusarium, A. flavus it (100, 100, 83.33) %, respectively, while the percentage of inhibition when using the biocidal in the concentration 2 g / L it( 94.44, 88.88, 77.77) %, respectively, and for the chemical was its impact less on the fungus compared with& extract alcohol and biocidal a percentage inhibition of the fungi at the concentration 0.6 ml / L (83.33, 77.77, 66.66) %, respectively, as shown results of this study differences in the sensitivity of fungi to the alcoholic extract of ginger, bio-chemical where the fungus Penicillium is the most fungi affected with extract and pesticides, where the percentage of inhibition it (100, 94.44 , 83.33)%, respectively, while the fungus A. flavus is the most resistant to extract and bio-chemical where the proportion of inhibition it (83.33, 77.77, 66.66) %, respectively

The Effect of Egg Shell as Different Particle Sizes Filler on the Mechanical Properties of Low Density Polyethylene.

Hameed A.Hamadi

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 79-88

Mechanical properties of (LDPE-463): egg shell particles composite were assessed with respect to the effect of filler content eggshell range from (5%,10%,15%,20%,25% 50%) by weight in the composite. The volume range off egg shell particles was (250≥V≤500) micrometer. The mechanical properties of loaded film have been evaluating through several parameters concerning the elastic deformation based on measuring the load – elongation characteristics and through several parameters like Elongation, Tensile at break and Tensile at yield. The obtained results show that egg shell particles reduce the free volume among polymeric chains indicating a good ability against applied stress. No experimental difficulties appeared for all mixing ratio under 50% with no separation in phase which makes the sample processing is possible. The Elongation is decrease with increasing filler concentration while Both tensile at yield and break are also decrease. The filler ratio 5% is found to be best due to it's Elongation while 40% is consider as the saturation value.

Effect study of garlic honey extract fungus isolated from Musca domestica and some patients

Haider Mashkoor Hussein

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 41-50

The present study investigated the effect of aqueous exctracts of honey and garlic alone both and study of the effect from mixing aqueous exctracts honey and garlic for three concentration (6.25,12.5,20) Micro liter on five species of fungi were isolated from Musca domesticat and some patient , Rhizopus stolanfer, Aspergillus niger, A.flavus Penicillium parasiticus , Microsporium cains, and. The results of chemical examination showed that aqueous exctracts of garlic contains of many medical compounds such as phenols,Alkaloides, Saponins, Saponins, Resins, Flavinoids, Tanins,and glycosids. Results appear that three concentration aqueous exctracts of honey and garlic alone and mixed of garlic and honey different depend on concentration and type of fungus. inhibition of fungi was obtain in concentration of honey in 20 Micro liter ,but all concentration of mixed extracts garlic and honey appears a greater significant effects from inhibition to fungs type. Compared with garlic and honey concentrations.

The effect of Quercus infectoria and Citrus auranifolia on klebsilla pneumonia and Escherichia.coli isolated from children suffering from diarrhea

Saja M.J

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 51-58

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of watery and alcoholic extract for Quercus infectoria and Citrus auranifolia on growing of Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumonia which isolated from diarrhea cases in children .All the extracts have inhibitory effect on tested bacteria .The watery extract of Quercus infectoria had the greatest inhibitory effect , it was 29± 0.33 , 27±0.57 mm with standard error in the concentration 100 mg/ml on both bacteria Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumonia, followed by the alcoholic extract of Citrus auranifolia in which it make it inhibitory zone was 24.6 ±0.33 mm with standard error in concentration 100mg/ml on the Klebsilla pneumonia.
The statically results shows that the watery extract of Quercus infectoria had more inhibitory effect comparing with the alcoholic extract . The alcoholic extract of Citrus auranifolia inhibited the growth of both types of bacteria more than the watery extract .

Study of some hormonal disorders which an accompaniment to polycystic ovary syndrome at women in the hospital of(( Delivery and Children)) in AL-Najaf governorate

Saher Mahmood Jwad

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 59-71

In order to know the hormonal disturbances which are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) this study has been carried out . In which (43) women at reproductive age were followed up. And the results of the preseut research were manifested , a significant increment ( p<0.01) in the averages of : the body weights , the concentrations of prolactine hormone , luteinizing hormone and testosterone hormone comparative with the control group, whereas the concontration of follicle stimulating hormone has been indicated a significant decrement (p<0.05) in the serum of these women . As while as the concentration of progesterone hormone had witnessed a significant decrease (p<0.01) when compared with the control group .

Effect of alcoholic extract of Apium graveolens leaves on some biochemical parameters of broiler

Saadia Ali AL-Ganami

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 12-18

The present study was conducted to knowledge the effect of alcoholic extract of Apium graveolens leaves on some biochemical parameters in broiler. Fourteen birds of chickens were randomly divided into two groups ,control group was given 1 ml of distilled water for two weeks and treated group was given 10 mg/kg of alcoholic extract of Apium graveolens leaves dissolved in 1 ml of distal led water .
Blood samples were collected before and after two weeks to do some biochemical parameters.The results showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in cholesterol concentration and low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration in treated group, and significant increase (P<0.05) in total protein concentration in treated group compare with control group. The results showed non significant changes in high density lipoproteins and triglycerides concentration in treated group.

A Computerize System for Arabic Semantic of Morphological

Sabah A.Ali

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 89-103

Morphological is the subject that concerns the derivation of words that are not
inflectional any changes in the derived words will change its meaning form this fact
we study the meaning of morphological forms of the trilelral verb derivations and
the effects of the added letters on their morphological meanings.
Indicate their effect on the general Arabic sentence, will be considered.
Noun derived forms have been also studied such as(Agent-noun, Object-noun,
Exaggeration mood,Qualificative adjective, Noun of instrument, Noun of time and
place, Elative noun) and what effect these morphological forms have on meaning of
Based on these a computerized system has been proposed to handle the
morphological Semantics and its role in computing lexicon entries.

Study the infection of Trichomonas vaginalis for women In Al-diwanya

Asifa Matroud yassin

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 72-78

From June 2009 till July 2010 it has been collected that (191) sample of urine & liquid vagina for women how visited the hospital of birth and children, some of the healthy center and special clinic for women in ad Diwaniyah . women suffered from vaginal secretion it was noticed that the total infection of Trichomonas vaginalis was about 10.9 % . the highest degrees of infection was 27.7 % during November, where as the lowest infection was 4.7 % during January. It was also noticed that the highest infection ranged between 26- 30 years for about 26 % while the lowest infection ranged between 46 – 50 years for about 4.5 % . for women who live in the city , the infection reached 12.7 % where as infection for women live in the country side reached 8.9 % . for infected women who visited the hospital of birth and children where about 13.5 % as exposed to those who visited special clinics for women for about 8.1 % . the present study showed that women who used birth control pills where infected for about 10.2 % where as infection for women who didn’t used these pills was about 12.6 % . the statistical analysis didn’t show any affect in about p > 0.05.

Diagnostic and epidemiological study on Leishmania donovani by using Bone Marrow Examination and Dipstick test in Thi-Qar governorate

Fadhil Abbas Al-Abady

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

The present study was done on Visceral Leishmaniasis from both diagnostic and epidemiological aspect, and included 158 person in Thi-Qar governorate and them aged between Two months to nine years for period from July 2006 up to June 2007 .
The result of present study referred to infect 143 of 158 person 90.51% , infected male percentage was higher than that of female , the number of infected males was 79 (55.24 %) and that of females was 64 (44.76 %) and the highest rate of infected was found in age of (12-7) month 41.96% and the lowest rate of infected was in age of (6-2) month 9.09 % , The geographical distribution of infected cases was referred to the highly rate of infected cases found in Al-Shattra 27 (18.88 %) and the lowly rate of infected cases was in Al-Batthaa 1 (0.7%) .
The most clinical features of VL were fever , anemia , splenomegaly , hepatomegaly , cough , lose appetite , vomiting and those rates were : (100 % , 95.8 % , 89.51 % , 76.22 % , 58.74 % , 53.84 % , 38.46 %) consequently .
Bone marrow examination was used to diagnose 58 cases and the result showed 38 (65.52 %) out of 58 cases were positive and the Dipstick test (rK39) revealed that 143 (90.51 %) out of 158 cases had sero positive results.

Effect of toxicity of fluoride and treatment with calcium in liver and kidney of rabbits males

Hashim M. Abdul-kareem

journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly), Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 19-29

30 local adult male rabbit were used in this experiment .The animals were treated with oral swallow for twelve of weeks . The animals divided to five groups : control group is oral treated with 0.9% normal saline , first treated group is treated with 10mgkg of body weight sodium fluoride , 2nd treated group is treated with 20mgkg of body weight sodium fluoride , 3rd treated group is treated with 10mgkg of body weight sodium fluoride and calcium chloride , 4th treated group is treated with 20mgkg of body weight sodium fluoride and calcium chloride . This experiment studied the histological changes in kidney and liver
The kidney tissue of the animals treated with sodium fluoride at the concentration 10,20 mgkg of body weight appear mild blood vessel congestion , shrinkage in glomeruli , disturbed in renal tubules and erode its epithelium with some apoptosis , treatment with sodium fluoride and calcium chloride at the concentration 10,20 mgkg of body weight appear simple changes and hemorrhage in glomeruli , small dilation in renal tubules and erode to its epithelium with appearing inflammatory cells . The liver sections appeared appreciable effect with fluoride at the concentration 10,20 mgkg of body weight include dilation in central vein and erode to its epithelium , congestion in hepatic sinusoids with apoptosis and erode to general structure of liver , while the treatment with sodium fluoride and calcium chloride at the concentration 10mgkg of body weight appeared small effect include simple congestion in central vein , small dilation in the sinusoids with some of inflammatory cells and death in some of cells .